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In the 1870s, white workers' frustration with economic distress, labor market uncertainty, and capitalist exploitation turned into anti-Chinese sentiment and racist attacks against the Chinese called them the "yellow peril." In 1882, the U. Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, and later extended to exclude all Asian immigrants until World War II.

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Chinatowns in the Northeast, particularly New York, and the mid-West grew to absorb those fleeing the extreme persecution in California.

The gender imbalance for Chinese was nearly 27 males per single female in 1890.

Instead, many new immigrants, especially the affluent and highly skilled, are bypassing inner cities to settle into suburbs immediately after arrival.

However, recent residential movements of Chinese Americans into ethnically concentrated suburban communities have tipped the balance of power, raising nativist anxiety of ethnic "invasion" and anti-immigrant sentiment.

Contemporary Chinese immigrants have arrived not only from mainland China, but also from the greater Chinese Diaspora -- Hong Kong, Taiwan, Vietnam, Cambodia, Malaysia, and the Americas.

They have also come from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds.

Chinese Americans are the oldest and largest ethnic group of Asian ancestry in the United States.

They have endured a long history of migration and settlement that dates back to the late 1840s, including some 60 years of legal exclusion.

This route is particularly relevant to those with limited education, few marketable job skills, and little familiarity with the larger labor market.

However, in the post-industrial era, the globalized and restructured economy has fewer and fewer middle rungs in the mobility ladder.

In the mid-l9th century, most Chinese immigrants arrived in Hawaii and the U. mainland as contract labor, working at first in the plantation economy in Hawaii and in the mining industry on the West Coast and later on the transcontinental railroads west of the Rocky Mountains.