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They became significant in culture and literature, and by the first century Philadelphus (283–44) emancipated the Jews taken captive by his father and settled them on the land as cleruchs or in "Jew-Camps" as Jewish military units.

The Greeks, supported by the Egyptians, were struggling to strengthen the power of the polis, while the Jews supported the Ptolemids, first Cleopatra recorded some unrest in Egypt of an antisemitic nature (e.g., Tcherikover, Corpus no. Josephus records that Julius Caesar was aided by Jewish cleruchs in Egypt when Antipater brought reinforcements from Palestine.In return for this Caesar is said to have reaffirmed the citizenship of the Alexandrian Jews in 47 The new administration under Augustus at first was grateful to the Jews for their support (cf.Augustus disbanded the Ptolemaic army and abolished the tax-collection system about 30 (a) the upper class of Romans, priests, Greek citizens of Alexandria, Naucratis, and Ptolemais, and those who had registered in the gymnasium; (b) Egyptians, the lowest class, who paid a burdensome poll tax; and (c) the middle class Augustus placed the Jew in the lowest class, forced to pay the tax.This was a blow to Jewish pride, for besides those few individual Jewish families who had received the distinction of Greek citizenship, the vast majority of Jews could no longer register in the gymnasia and had to pay the poll tax.The Jews often sought to explain Judaism to the Greeks (cf. They tried to enter the Greek gymnasium which was a sign of the cultured Greek.

Cases of actual apostasy were rare; that of Dositheos, son of Drimylos, who renounced Judaism to enter court, was exceptional ( It used to be thought that the Jews were given equal rights with the Greeks by Alexander the Great, and that they called themselves Macedonians (Wars, 7–88). Since the population registered its name and racial origin, each nationality in Egypt formed a separate group through the Ptolemid period.

Augustus abolished the post of ethnarch of Alexandria in 10–12 The following year they stormed the synagogues, polluted them, and set up statues of the emperor within.

The prefect, Valerius Flaccus , was embarrassed and dared not remove the images of Caesar.

[By: Encyclopedia Judaica] Egypt, centered along the banks of the River Nile from the Mediterranean coast southward, is a land rich in both biblical and contemporary Jewish history.

In 1948, the Jewish population of Egypt reached as high as 75,000.

From that time began a long struggle by the Alexandrian Jews to confirm their rights.