In the seismic retrofit of such structures it is common practice to remove critical rivets with an oxygen torch, precision ream the hole, then insert a machined and heat treated bolt.
A rivet compression or crimping tool can also deform this type of rivet.This tool is mainly used on rivets close to the edge of the fastened material, since the tool is limited by the depth of its frame.Solid rivets are also used by some artisans, in the construction of modern reproduction of medieval armour, jewellery and Metal Couture ==== High-strength structural steel rivets ==== Until relatively recently, structural steel connections were either welded or riveted.High-strength bolts have largely replaced structural steel rivets.To distinguish between the two ends of the rivet, the original head is called the factory head and the deformed end is called the shop head or buck-tail.
Because there is effectively a head on each end of an installed rivet, it can support tension loads (loads parallel to the axis of the shaft); however, it is much more capable of supporting shear loads (loads perpendicular to the axis of the shaft).Such rivets come with rounded (universal) or 100° countersunk heads.Typical materials for aircraft rivets are aluminium alloys (2017, 2024, 2117, 7050, 5056, 55000, V-65), titanium, and nickel-based alloys (e.g., Monel).Such riveted structures may be insufficient to resist seismic loading from earthquakes if the structure was not engineered for such forces, a common problem of older steel bridges.This is because a hot rivet cannot be properly heat treated to add strength and hardness. Before being installed, a rivet consists of a smooth cylindrical shaft with a head on one end. On installation, the rivet is placed in a punched or drilled hole, and the tail is upset, or bucked (i.e., deformed), so that it expands to about 1.5 times the original shaft diameter, holding the rivet in place.